tourintro1Manila, being the premier city, is the main embarkation point of tourists and visitors. Major tourism offices, attractions and accommodations facilities are located in the city. Varied tourist destinations that caters to local as well as foreign visitors abounds in the city both of natural and man-made attractions. There are also luxury hotels, standard and economy class motels, pensions and inns that are always ready to welcome these guests.  Figures from the Department of Tourism show that tourist arrivals in the Philippines for the period January to October 1993 surpassed the millionth mark with an aggregate total of 1,050,867 tourists. This represents an 18.38% increase over last year’s recorded volume of 8872834 tourist for the same period. Based on these statistics. It may be concluded that many of these tourists visited Manila because of the city’s unique tourist-attracting character.

tourintro3The City offers many places of interest to tourists. The Rizal Park Complex features miniture Chinese and Japanese gardens. The park is also the ideal place to view the spectacular and internationally re-knowned Manila Bay sunset. Aside from Rizal Park, there are also places of historical and religious significance such as the San Agustin church, Manila Cathedral, Fort Santiago and the old Walls of Intramuros.

The area defined as the “tourist belt” is very near the park. Apolinario Mabini street is famous for its art galleries and handicraft stores. Along Roxas Boulevard are located most of the first class hotels, coffee shops, nightclubs, specialty restaurants and bars.

 To service both the foreign and local tourists in Manila are twenty-five (25) hotels (out of 36 in Metro Manila) classified as De Luxe, First Class, Standard and Economy. On the other hand, the cultural influence of Manila can be gleaned from the data of the Department of Tourism showing that twelve (12) out of sixteen (16) museums and seven (7) out of ten (10) theaters are located in the City of Manila.

The promotion of tourism should be closely coordinated and integrated with the city’s beautification/greening program and park’s development. Parks, museums, theaters, recreational facilities and exhibition centers catering to the needs of local residents are also generally the places that entertain and attract foreign tourists.

This entry was posted on June 8, 2014.

Jose “Lito” Atienza

panalonaJose “Lito” Atienza was born in San Andres Bukid on the 10th day of August 1941, just a few months before the outbreak of World War II. His father, Jose Atienza, Sr., was a distinguished public servant who had served three Philippine presidents. He finished elementary and secondary education at the Ateneo de Manila, and took up Bachelor’s Degree in Architecture at the University of Santo Tomas . Atienza’s interest in urban planning and community development springs from his formal training in Architecture.

As a young man, Atienza organized the Democratic Youth Movement in 1968. He survived the infamous Plaza Miranda bombing in 1972, and was jailed twice for exposing human rights abuses under Martial Law. Reflecting his concern for under- represented sectors of society, he founded the Mahal Ko si Lolo, Mahal Ko si Lola foundation in 1976, a model for today’s Office of Senior Citizens Affairs (OSCA). In 1984, he founded the Kababaihan ng Maynila, a women’s livelihood organization. He was elected to the Batasang Pambansa in 1984, and appointed General Manager of the National Housing Authority in 1988, during which he promoted low cost housing for teachers and for policemen.
Lito Atienza was elected Vice-Mayor in 1992 and served in that capacity for two terms. He provided socio-civic services to the people of Manila such as the Home for the Angels, a child care center for abandoned and abused infants.

After serving as Acting Mayor when former Mayor Alfredo Lim resigned to run for President in 1998, Atienza was elected Mayor of Manila the same year. Mayor Atienza took his oath of office on June 24, 1998 coinciding with the 427th anniversary of the founding of the City of Manila. One of the primary accomplishments of his administration is the restoration of Manila as the business and cultural capital of the Philippines.

After serving three years as father of the city, Atienza was able to achieve his goal in reviving Manila. He got re-elected last May 2001; serve his second term as the Mayor of the City of Manila.

This entry was posted on April 12, 2014.


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To improve Health Condition of mothers and young children in urban poor communities in the City of Manila

1.Capacity Development program and tools for various stakeholders (technical, clinical and administrative staff)

2.Equipped and functional biomedical maintenance laboratory in one tertiary level hospital and basic set of tools and instruments for selected facilities

3.An effective documentation system, inventory and monitoring system

4.Manual of operation for Medical Equipment Management (planning for acquisition, procurement, commissioning, inventory, monitoring and maintenance)

5.Establishment of a MEM network among the various facilities

6.Rationalized consultation practices among pregnant and lactating mothers in target communities

7.A proposal for a more effective referral and monitoring of maternal and child health cases across the different levels of the health system

8.Enhanced the capacities of the health personnel across the different levels of the health system to implement rational referral system

9.Enhanced the skills of health workers in community based health facilities

This entry was posted on October 22, 2012.


The presence of squatters in the city is a reflection of a basic social problem: inadequate housing. Housing problem affects the unemployed and the employed who do not own the place they live in. The reasons may be varied but the most obvious would be the prohibitive cost of building a house.

Indeed, the local housing problem is so serious that any hope for its meaningful resolution requires the immediate implementation of sustained slum clearance and squatter relocation with provisions for housing and other basic facilities in relocation sites as well as strict squatter prevention measures in cleared areas. The city government, thru its Urban Settlements Office is committed to address this housing predicament, hopefully, in terms of quantity, affordability, quality and accessibility. It must be added, however, that it does when the city faces increasing financial constraints as a result of the higher cost of other essential public services. Construction materials cost is among the highest in the country. Interest rates are high and are still soaring the steady influxed of migrant fortune-seekers to live in Manila place added pressure on the city’s housing stock. These are factors over which the City has little control of it all.

At any rate, fully meeting the “needs”; will require a rate of production many times greater that what has been constructed in recent years. Significantly, to begin to fill the city’s housing backlog, the production of at least 1,000 dwellings units must be undertaken a year. The rent or purchase price of many of these units should be reduced to make them affordable. For various reasons, the supply of affordable housing is not expanding enough to match demand.

What can the city then do to increase the supply of housing? It can assure allocation of sufficient sites for housing at locations acceptable to prospective constituent/beneficiaries; provide land use incentives for the production of housing, particularly mass-oriented housing project; assist, to a limited extent, in the financing of socialized high-rise tenement type of housing and establish a favorably regular climate for new housing construction.


The price of urbanization has been prohibitive due to pollution, imbalances in the eco-system. Waterways are practically bad, the air is polluted because of unregulated vehicular emissions and industrial wastes; waste management remains inadequate. The Pasig River and the 23 creeks or esteros are considered biologically dead.

Time Magazine had reported Manila as one of the mega cities in the world suffering from extreme air pollution. Records from the LTO showed that there are some 650,000 vehicles plying the streets of the metropolis. Sixty percent of the air-pollution is attributed to smoke-belching and 40 percent to industrial plants.

Air pollution is posing increasingly serious problems in some of the world’s biggest cities, and is now an almost inescapable part of urban life anywhere according to a report jointly published by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The report, “Urban Air Pollution in Mega cities of the World”, is the result of a scientific study of pollution levels in 20 such cities – those that already have population of 10 million or more, or are expected to reach that total be the year 2000.

The United Nations estimates that by the now, 47 percent of the global population is living in urban areas. The cities are: Bangkok, Bombay, Buenos Aires, Cairo, Calcutta, Delhi, Jakarta, Karachi, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, Moscow, New York, Rio de Janeiro, San Paulo, Seoul, Shanghai and Tokyo. In some of them, air pollution contributes to premature death and serious disability although the report says that these cities are not necessarily the world’s most polluted. The urgent action recommended were:

air quality management programs
energy conservation
motor vehicle examination and maintenance programs
phasing out lead in petrol
promotion of mass transit systems
alternatives to open dumping/burning of refuse
the introduction of “clean” technologie
Solid waste collection and disposal has always been viewed by local executives as a major area of concern over the years. The fact is, as the City population grows, the problem of waste management grows proportionately. It is because of this reality that compelled the local leadership to continuously search, formulate and implement appropriate and multi-dimensional programs that would ensure a long-term beneficial impact not only to the constituents of the City of Manila but also to the entire country as a whole. Consequently, waste management in the City has been one of the highest priority concerns thaf which has become an indispensable component of development.

The problems of Manila in this regard are the following: Livelihood Generation.
a. The unemployment rate as of 1996 was 13.46%. It has been going down over the past ten years: 17.46% in 1993, 16.68% in 1994. However, the rate is still unacceptably high. Moreover, the underemployment rate is most likely high although there are no official calculations for this.

b. The poverty rate for 1994 was 11.5% of Manila’s population. Roughly 190,000 persons (38,000 households) live below the national Capital Region poverty threshold.

c. Some key business have left the city. Banks and insurance companies have transferred their headquarters to nearby cities. However, some have left their branches in Manila.

d. The tourism industry is languishing. Manila is regarded primarily as a stopover city, rather than as a destination in itself Tour operators hesitate to sell city tours because of the many problems besetting the city; hotel managers complain of low occupancy rates. This, of course, affects the many small entrepreneurs that depend on the tourism industry.

e. The majority of families in Manila work either in government or in the private sector. A sizeable number of productive residents are engaged in business or some sort of entrepreneurial activities. The challenge facing the city is how to create an environment that will encourage more entrepreneurship.
Historic conservation. A competitive advantage of Manila over its neighbors is that it has high density of important landmark sites and buildings. But these are rapidly disappearing. In many countries in Europe, America and Southeast Asia, local governments regard the proper management of existing landmarks buildings and streets as crucial to the revitalization of a district Such sites (1) help foster a pride of place among residents, (2) generate new jobs because they attract visitors, (3) attract certain types of investors who want the glamour of holding office in an interesting historic district and (4) ultimately increase revenues. Thus far this notion is a new one in Manila and has not yet been applied.
a. Many formerly attractive mansions from the 19th and early 20th centuries no longer house middle and high-income families. Their insides have been divided into small apartment units with poor ventilation and poor lighting

b. Many such mansions are being eyed for demolition to make way for high-rise apartments. Thus far speculation is on the lot rather than on the building itself£ There are no protective laws and ordinances for landmark buildings.

c. The surrounding environment has deteriorated. Thus high-income residents and quality business have left. Slums have flourished.

Land use policy (as exercised through zoning, Development controls and building regulation) has far exerted only limited impact in shaping the type, pattern and intensity of urban development activity in the City of Manila.

Ordinance No.2830 was passed and enforced in Manila on October 28, 1940 until it was suspended in 1953 by the New Zoning Ordinance. In March 1981, the Zoning for the National Capital Region jointly prepared by the Local Zoning review Committee of the Office of the Commission for Planning, Metropolitan Manila Commission Zoning Ordinance and Human Settlements Regulatory Commission which was enacted in 1981 and still in effect in Manila for more than 16 years to this date. The subdivision regulations have been in force since 1977. The MMC is the agency that issues building clearances as a prerequisite for the issuance of a building permit by the local government unit. The problem of non-conforming and land use was aggravated by the issuance of clearances even to those that are clearly in violation of the zoning ordinance. While the zoning ordinance provided the spatial allocation for various urban activities (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) it did not provide clear regulatory standards on the intensity of various development activities.

Aside from the inherent weakness of the ordinance itself, it suffered from an inadequate enforcement system. Thus, the objectives of the ordinance were often overwhelmed by the real state market mechanism and the demands of market economy. Environmental objectives of the ordinance were, therefore, compromised on the basis of a more pragmatic private sector considerations. To be able to respond to the problem of rapid urbanization, the City of Manila must be able to come up with an updated and a more responsive zoning ordinance.


Manila is divided into zones of different vulnerability levels defined by the types of soil rock materials present that control the resonance of swaying buildings. Under the very high risk zone underlain by the very ‘thick layers of soft clay or loose sand greater than 15 meters are Quiapo, Intramuros, Sta.Cruz, Binondo and Port Area. Malate and Ermita are very high zones underlain by medium dense sand or clay while Pandacan is low risk zone with stiff to hard clay dense sand.


The major causes of annual flooding of the low-lying areas in Manila are:

Overflowing of the Pasig River and esteros during intense storms; and
Inadequate inland drainage facilities to cope with excessive local surface run-offs.
These are further aggravated by a reduction of the carrying capacity of the Pasig River due to the indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes into esteros, drains and the river itself by squatters and the deposition of silt eroded from deforested upstream sections. The reduced flow capacity of the Pasig River has attributed to the overflowing and flooding of low-lying areas during heavy rains.

The areas that are frequently and oftentimes seriously flooded are Tondo, Sta. Cruz, Sampaloc, Sta. Mesa and San Andres.


The dire consequences of a major earthquake hitting the Metropolitan area has been the focus of attention by experts on this particular field. The focus of intense discussion is the Marikina Fault which cut across most parts of the metropolis. The experts contend that although Manila had been severely damaged by the earthquakes over the past several years, none of these has been traced to the Marikina Fault Instead in historical times, most of these have emanated from the Philippine fault, an active earth rupture nearly 100 kilometers east of Metro Manila. The experts conclude therefore that even without considering the Marikina Fault, Manila is vulnerable to high intensity earthquakes.


Above all of these concerns are opportunities for development for the City of Manila. Amidst tight supply of land resources and other related concerns, the City’s strategic location, economic vitality and historic/socio-cultural significance open many windows of opportunity for development. The political mandate bestowed towards the renewal of Manila is unmistakably immense.

Manila, being the country’s center of trade and commerce has well-developed facilities and services m transport, communications, power, recreation and infrastructure. Its well equipped seaport facilities open the country to international trading. It serves as the major trading center of the Philippines, the hub of the country’s shipping network and the jump-off point for the country’s numerous island destinations.


Historically, Pasay, Makati, Navotas, Malabon and San Juan were parts of Manila that eventually became separate local government units. Manila has already reached the apex of its development potential maximizing the use of its land resources. The development direction that it can pursue is to go upward and intensify inner regenerative activities.

Manila is foreseen to undergo a great extent of redevelopment in the downtown area – Rizal Avenue, Quiapo, San Nicolas, Binondo and the ‘~red light” districts of Ermita and Malate. Direction of regenerative activities are also expected in Paco and Sta. Ana while rebuilding is anticipated in Pandacan when high-intensity industries are lifted in the area. Underutilized land resources which may be redeveloped into a community with medium or high-rise social housing provided with open space for park and utilities will change population and land use pattern in the city.

Decentralizing international shipping activities in the South Harbor and additional railway access in the inner core of the city, particularly in the North harbor, would mean lesser pressure on the radial roads and other city streets nearby. However, industrial activities in Tondo would create additional road demand and strong development pressure for nearby municipalities such as Navotas and Malabon or the city of Kalookan

The magnitude of industrial estate development in the northern part of Tondo signifies development pressure on land, housing and other basic services. ‘The present population density of the area poses a warning that utilities and other services are becoming insufficient, more so when the industries are fully operational.

Land scarcity in the city is well-recognized and territorial expansion is no longer feasible. Alternatively, it can go beyond its land limits along the Manila Bay. This, however, will be dictated by its impact to the environment and its viability.


Manila is strategically located on the eastern coast of Manila Bay at the mouth of the Pasig River. Despite the existence of other regional growth centers, many cities in the country, particularly in the Metropolitan Manila area highly depend on the City of Manila for shipping facilities. The city’s well developed harbor facilities link it to different parts of the country as well as the rest of the world. Likewise, Manila is only a few kilometers away from the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Parañaque via Roxas Boulevard.

What better way is there to interact with people than by directly involving themselves in socially wholesome and enriching activities? People are the primary players in linking one area to another. Manila may seem overly congested but this does not deter people from other places to come and visit the city’s interesting sites.

Other engaging areas which draw tourists, both local and international are the bazaar and trade centers as well as the convention and cultural centers located in the reclaimed portion of the city. Trade proliferate in the areas of Divisoria and the Chinese district of Binondo. Manila is also frequently visited for its famed fine dining restaurants mostly in Adriatico and its esteros fast food chain located in Binondo.

Manila’s accessibility is attributed to its roads, utilities and communication facilities. With its eight radial roads and its railways, Manila is linked with its neighboring cities and municipalities, giving access to places as far as Region 3 and 4. The Pasig River is now being utilized as an alternative transport gateway to the east connecting the city with Mandaluyong, Makati, Marikina and Pasig.


The City of Manila has undergone rapid urbanization for the past several decades. Whatever plans that were in place were overwhelmed by the rapid developments that took place. The City determined to restore the old glory of Manila and the prestige it deserves. To achieve this, we shall be guided by the following development goals:

Human and Ecological Security
It shall be our goal to provide human and ecological security to improve the quality of life of the people of Manila. The city government is determined to address the needs of our constituents without sacrificing the ecological balance between man and tile environment This goal would mean alleviation , if not freedom from poverty, social injustices and economic imbalance – complemented with sound ecologically balanced environment. It acknowledges that concern for the environment in relation to man should be far more integrated in the process of governance.
Urban Regeneration
The physical, social, economic, and political structures of the city need to be revitalized to accommodate and respond to the irreversible complexities brought by urbanization a midst accelerating population. The demands created by these activities in a old city like Manila compelled the city government to resort for urban regeneration, to upgrade the city infrastructure and services, restore and rehabilitate existing cultural landmarks, and spur the city’s development that is responsive to the needs of both present and future requirements.

The City of Manila shall be guided by the following policies and strategies that shall serve as development pillars in the pursuit of the City’s development goals.

Dynamic and Responsive Local Governance

Manila’s built-in advantages as a premier city and as the nation’s trading and commercial center have not been fully utilized. The prestige associated with the city’s rich historical past and its superior natural and human resources have not been a major tributary to alleviate the city’s monstrous ~ problems. Moreover, the inability to exercise, and maximize these built-in advantages as a result of traditional local governance has stirred the city into a decaying metropolis. Local Government Code of 1991 provides local functions of autonomous power and a corporate character, encourages and supports every local functionary to be dynamic and responsive in handling their respective local affairs. In this light, the city government firmly believes that in order to facilitate the realization of its developmental goals and objectives, it is first and foremost to lay down the foundation of a dynamic and responsive local governance, and let the same be institutionalize

Participatory Governance

Participatory governance unveils the strategy of integrated and coordinated approaches. Such policy and strategy entice and encourage all sectors of the society to take part and make a bold step in shaping the city’s development plight in connection with their respective sect oral needs, not allowing the city government alone to shoulder all the burdens and initiatives, but rather share with the local government quest for socio-economic deliverance. Moreover, transparency within the approaches ensure the active, dynamic and productive partnership between the government, barangay officials and the private sectors towards a renewed envisioned City of Manila.


“BRING BACK THE OLD GLORIES OF MANILA.” The slogan openly acknowledged the urgent need to restore and regenerate the city’s physical structures and facilities. The challenge to regenerate the city now rides with the Urban Renewal and Land Use Management strategy of the city government. Urban planning as a tool facilitates direction to build a desirable regenerated urban structure. It creates opportunities resulting front spatial planning as well as enhances and promotes cultural landmarks management and implants the land use pattern reflective of the city’s comprehensive development plan.


The ‘”PRO-LIFE” advocacy of the city government encompasses calls for an ecologically-balance and sustainable environment to support the life-cycle system. It shall include the ability to protect and ensure that all living things are adequately provided without sacrificing the needs of future generations.. This is “PRO-LIFE POLICY” – dynamic and responsive in its calling, preventive and curative in dealing with the problems of urban environment It is not a policy that deals merely with the life of the unborn, but rather it is concern with the more broader meaning of LIFE, such as the God given natural and physical resources)., the entire interwoven LIFE support- system, its synergy, and complementarily for a better and sustainable quality of life now and the future.

This entry was posted on July 29, 2011.


Throughout the reign of the Spanish colonial government, Manila’s rich political, cultural and social history evolved in the enclave of Intramuros. However, throughout the almost 500 years of the country’s recorded history, the regions surrounding the enclave also served as critical, if not crucial to the development of the nation’s capital, lending invaluable services and products to the development of the entire region.

Surrounding the Intramuros enclave were districts such as Malate, Ermita, Pandacan, San Andres, Paco and Sta. Ana, while cross the Pasig River which is also considered as part of Manila even before were Binondo, San Miguel, Quiapo, Sta. Cruz, Tondo and Sampaloc.

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These districts provided the Intramuros enclave much of its supply and goods as well as laborers and other products critical to the development of the capital. Today, these districts are thriving communities and remains critical to the interweaving web of development for the entire city.

Today, the city is divided into six congressional districts for easy political identification. All these six districts are sub-divided into 100 zones and 897 barangays (the smallest political unit in the city). The old administrative 14 districts became 17 due to the redefining of congressional district boundaries. Tondo was divided into two – Tondo I which is the first congressional district and Tondo II, the second congressional district. Some barangays were separated from the then administrative districts of Sampaloc forming Sta. Mesa which is part of the sixth congressional district and some barangays of Sta. Ana comprising the area of San Andres which is now part of the fifth congressional district.

This entry was posted on July 16, 2011.


Crime2A high incidence of criminality not only deters tourists from visiting the premier city of the country but also restrains citizens from residing in the city.

Annual crime statistics reveal that crime volume increased from 4,053 in 1983 to 7,144 in 1995. However, statistics on crime against persons and properties does not reflect the real situation prevailing in our society. Because of the very low public approval of our police personnel, people tend not to report crimes committed against them.

In 1995, theft (1,132 or 33.31%) and robbery (1,054 or 31.02%) ranked as the top top criminal activity in the City; followed by the physical injury (791 or 23.28%) and murder (266 or 7.83%). As shown in table below, the least were homocide (91 or 2.68%) and rape (64 or 1.88%). Of the 7,144 total crime volume in 1995, 3,398 or 47.56% were index crime while 3,746 or 52.4% were non-index crime. The average monthly crime rate (for index &non-index crimes is 7.1 while the average by arrest (for index & non-index crime) is 6,353 and the crime solution efficiency rating (for index & non-index crime) is 88.93.

Peace and order concern is commonly addressed by equating the number of people in the area vis-a-vis strength of the police force in the City. The Philippine National Police-Western Police District (PNP-WPD) headquarter in the City is in United Nations Avenue. As of March 20, 1997, there are 3,421 personnel in the WPD, of which 244 (7.13%) are officers, 2,965 (86.68%) are Police Non-Commission Officer and 212 (6.19%) are non-uniform police. The 1997 ratio of police over Manila’s population (1:585) is close to meeting the normative standard of 1:500.

Police visibility is reflected in the 11 police stations and Police Kababayan Center in the City.

Although the City of Manila has a ratio of police personnel vis-a-vis the population which is very close to the standard set by the Philippine National Police, it seems that lawlessness is still on the rise. It is the public’s general perception that our police forces are incapable of ensuring public safety. Contributory factors to the rise in crime incidence are the problem on drug addiction and massive poverty.

Police services are augmented by national anti-crime bodies such as Presidential Anti-Crime Commission (PACC) and the barangay brigades which are commonly referred to as the barangay tanods in every barangay. Barangays have a peace and order committee that responds to peace and order concerns in their respective jurisdiction. Furthermore, lice stations and barangay outpost are visible in Manila.

This entry was posted on April 24, 2011.


The Manila Health Department records show that there are 35,458/1000 population registered live births in 1999 and 39,209/1000 population in 1998 or a decrease of 9.57%. However, there is a 6.80% increase in the number of deaths from 9,799 registered deaths in 1998 to 10,513 registered deaths in 1999. The neonatal deaths of 787 in 1998 decreased to 779 in 1999; post natal deaths also decreased from 461 in 1998 to 428 in 1999. Maternal deaths were registered at 15 for 1998 and 14 in 1999. Foetal deaths likewise went down from 333 in 1998 to 324 in 1999. Click here to view Vital Health Statistics for 1998 and 1999.

As of 1999, the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) of Manila is 20.72 accounting for 35,456 live births. While Dist. I registered the highest live birth at 6,582, Dist. III, on the other hand, has the highest Crude Birth Rate (CBR) at 31.31. The crude death rate is 6.14 or 10,513 deaths.

From 1998 to 1999, the leading causes of morbidity were diarrhea, bronchitis, pneumonia, TB, heart diseases, measles, mumps, cancer, chicken fox and dengue. Mortality, on the other hand, is caused mainly by diseases of the heart, pneumonia, cancer, tuberculosis, cerebro vascular diseases, sepsis, hypertensive, prematurity, UPI and homicide. For infant mortality, the leading causes are prematurity, pneumonia, sepsis, acute gastro enteritis, congenital anomalies, measles, asphixia anomalies, neconium aspiration and meningities.


Leading Cause of Morbidity 1998-1999
Leading Cause of Mortality 1998-1999
Leading Cause of Infant Mortality 1998-1999

Of the 33 hospitals located in the City of Manila, 23 or 69.69% are licensed private hospitals, 6 or 18.18% are national government owned hospitals and 4 or 12.12% are city government owned.

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The 23 private hospitals are the Manila Medical Center, Manila Doctors’ Hospital, Physician’s Diagnostic Services Center, Seamen’s Hospital, Manila Children & Lying-in Hospital, St. Jude General Hospital, Santo Tomas University Hospital, FEU-NRMF Hospital, Mary Chiles Hospital, Infant Jesus, The Family Clinic, Inc., Perpetual Succour Hospital, Perpetual Help Hospital, Chinese General Hospital, Metropolitan Hospital, Galang Medical Center, Clinica Arellano, Santos Medical Clinic and General Hospital, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, De Ocampo Memorial Medical Center, Mary Johnston Hospital, Sta. Rita Hospital and Amisola Maternity Hospital.

The six government hospitals are Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital, San Lazaro Hospital, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Tondo Medical Center, UP-Philippine general Hospital, Presidential Security Group Station Hospital. The four city government hospitals include Ospital ng Maynila, Ospital ng Tondo 2, Ospital ng Sampaloc and the Gat Andres Bonifacio Hospital.. As of 1999, there are 49 health centers in the City which translates to a health center-population ratio of 1:34,916. The health centers are distributed as follows: District I – 9; District II – 7; District III – 7; District IV – 9; District V – 7; and 10 in District VI. These public health facilities in Manila are manned by over 7370 health professionals, 138 of which are physicians, 160 are nurses, 137 are midwives, 59 are dentists and 245 are support staff. Click here to view Medical Personnel Ratio to Patients by district.

The ideal health center to population ratio as determined by the Department of Health (DOH) is 1:20,000. Therefore, there should be at least 83 health centers in the city. Under the World Bank funded Urban Health and Nutrition Project (UHNP) of the DOH, 22 new health centers in Manila are to be built to narrow the health facilities to clientele population ratio down to 1:23,335, a figure that falls within acceptable limits of the ideal proportion. The detailed architectural and engineering plans, based on World Bank specifications, have been prepared and the only remaining issue is the provision of sites for the health centers. The major criterion for site identification is the accessibility of the new health centers to the urban poor.

The table below shows the distribution of government and private hospitals and bed-capacity population ratio. It is noted that in 1994, five (5) out of thirty-one (31) government hospitals in Metro Manila are found in the City of Manila. Four out of the five government hospitals in the City are owned and operated by the city government. These are: Ospital ng Maynila, Ospital ng Tondo 2 , Ospital ng Sampaloc and the Gat Andres Bonifacio Hospital. Meanwhile, 24 of the private hospitals in the National Capital Region is in Manila. Private hospitals in the city went down from 29 in 1992 to 23 in 1993. It, however, increased by one in 1994.

This entry was posted on January 12, 2011.


Manila took a long time to make. What is now its sea reached as far as the present towns of Mandaluyong, “a place of waves” and Makati, “a place of tides”. It is said that diggers in Makati often find seashells. This could mean that once a upon a time Makati was seashore or seabed. The line of the shore may have been along Guadalupe, under the cliffs. So, at that time, the highway called EDSA would have been a beach!
All the land north of this, up to what’s now Quezon City, was under water. Then, through hundreds and hundreds of years, this foreshore began to till up until a triangle of ground appeared.

This became the site of the City of Manila. The triangle can be imagined as a fan: the handle is Pasig town; the rim of the fan is the arc between Pasay and North Harbor.

No one knows how long it took to turn sea into land. But we do know who built a site for Manila.

The builder was the Pasig River.

The present Pasig is a stream 23 kilometers long. It rises from the North side of Laguna de Bai and flow West – ward into Manila Bay. The mouth of the river was a first somewhere near Pasig town.

Into the Bay there the river carried its load of mud and sand. After hundreds of years these deposits of soil had piled up to form ground. Through this triangle of ground that it had formed, the river forced a new channel, with many loops, to reach the bay now farther off.

The river thus divided the triangle into an upper side and lower side, or into north and south. And the mouth of the river was now almost exactly in the middle between these two halves.

The ground thus formed at the mouth of a river is called a delta.

The delta of the Pasig River is almost entirely occupied by the City of Manila. In the beginning this delta was not a solid hunk of ground. Instead it was a jumble of small islands between which ran the rivulets that we call esteros.

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It must have been a long time before anybody inhabited these islands. Being barely above sea level, they would go under water during high tide or the monsoon rains. Floods are still a problem in modern Manila because the land level has not risen much since the days when the Pasig delta was a jigsaw of tiny isles.

The site of Manila was reclaimed from the sea – and the sea is still trying to get it back!

The higher ground beyond the delta was already inhabited. In the dense forests of what is now Caloocan, Quezon City and San Juan roamed the aboriginal tribes. Their tools, weapons and other goods (which are called artifacts) have been unearthed. But no artifacts have been found in the ground of Manila, a sign that the delta islands began to be lived in only recently.

Perhaps the first to inhabit the delta isles were the barangay folk who began to arrive in the Philippines around the tenth century. They came in the large rowboats called barangay. A group of families related to one another is called a clan from the nearby Malay world to a new home in the Philippines, then still the virgin wilderness of Aeta and Negrito.

Certain barangay expeditions sailing up from the south and cruising the western coast of Luzon carne upon an opening .in the shoreline. The entrance was partly blocked by an island that rose high like a rock. Rowing past this “door”, the migrants found themselves inside a big and beautiful bay, almost perfectly round and almost totally enclosed. Here the water was calm and the breeze was gentle, for this was haven shut off from the storminess of the China Sea outside. Down to the waters of the bay grew the forest primeval, so that everywhere you looked you saw a world of blue and green.

With what awe must our forefathers have gazed on all that purity and silence and loveliness!

They had discovered Manila Bay.

One of the world’s best natural harbors, the bay is 56 kilometres at its broadest. The entrance is about 18 kilometres wide and is divided the Rock of Corregidor into two passages: a northern and southern channel. If our forefathers entered through the upper channel, which is only some three kilometers wide, they rounded the tip of the Bataan peninsula and saw its deep jungles. lf they sailed in through the lower passage, they beheld the “hook” of Cavite and green hills rising from a narrow curving shore. From a distance, the hills look like a Sleeping Woman. Ahead, on the east point of the bay, was the fairest marvel of all: a cluster of islands sparkling in the sunshine like emeralds.

Oh, how the hearts of our forefathers must have leapt with joy upon seeing that mini archipelago tucked so safely deep inside the bay!

This entry was posted on November 13, 2010.


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The story of Manila begins with a gifted people called the taga-ilogs or dwellers by the river, who built at the mouth of tha Pasig River a fortified settlement called MAYNILA after the plant nilad which grew abundantly on the river bank.

The taga-ilogs were Malays who had migrated north-ward from Borneo to look for land of their own. Moslem in faith, they built a settlement which would become an important Islamic outpost in Luzon.

Manila then was the central point in the archipelago to which would come trading ships from the other barangays and from China, Japan and India. Manila for the next centuries dominated the economy and politics of the Philippines.


Among the people drawn to Manila were the Spaniards who arrived in Cebu from Mexico in 1567 to colonized the island which Ferdinand Magellan claimed for Spain when he arrived in 1521.

The Spaniards under the leadership of Don Miguel Lopez de Legaspi captured Manila and on its ruins founded “The Distinguished and Ever Loyal City of Manila” on June 24, 1571.

The re-building of Manila by the Spaniards began with a fort which developed later into the walls of Intramuros. Fires, earthquake , the Chinese and Japanese uprising would imperil the city in the next 200 years but Manila survived.

Before the 16th century ended, Manila was a Spanish colonial capital, the seat of Commerce, government and the church. It had a printing press, the thriving galleon trade with Acapulco, a hospital, a university and several churches.


The conquest of Manila gave the Spaniards on excellent central base for the colonization of the whole archipelago. Within a hundred years, Spain was able to unify the barangays under one sovereign. The latter part of the period saw the rise of nationalism, as schools, transportation and language cased communication between towns.

Spanish rule remained unchallenged although the Portuguese, and later the Dutch, made a series of raids in the archipelago. The break came in 1762 when the British captured Manila during the Seven Year’s war and held it until 1764. Brief though it was, the British occupation opened the port of Manila to world commerce and broke the isolation of Manila, the liberation ideas of Europe filtered into the Philippines.


The Filipino resisted the Spaniards from time to time throughout the 333 years of Spanish rule. None of these uprisings, however, became national movements for independence.

The real national movement for independence began as a call for political and religious reforms by the Ilustradors. Filipinos of education and property, who had emerged in the 19th century as a district social class.

Manila became the center of the reform movement led first by Father Jose Burgos in Manila, and after his martyrdom, by the Propagandists in Madrid and Barcelona led by Dr. Jose P. Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar.

The movement for reforms failed, the Propagandists, however, succeeded in instilling the feeling of nationhood among the Filipinos.

A secret revolutionary society, the KATIPUNAN, founded by Andres Bonifacio, spearheaded the armed conflict against Spain. The “Cry of Balintawak” signalled the start of the Philippine Revolution of 1896.


Manila was on of the first eight provinces to join the Revolution along with Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Laguna, Cavite and Batangas. Many prominent Filipinos were imprisoned in Fort Santiago but the Revolution led by Andres Bonifacio but the New Leaders in the National Movement for independence later emerged. One of them was General Emilio Aguinaldo from Cavite.

The revolutionaries under Aguinaldo won several encounters against the Spanish army but were overwhelmed by fresh reinforcements a year later. On December 14-15, 1897, Aguinaldo made peace with the Spaniards in the Pact (agreement) of Biak na Bato and went into self-exile in Hongkong. The pact was shortlived. The following of February fighting between the Filipinos and the Spaniards broke out anew in the outskirts of Manila.


American intervention in Cuba and in the Philippines renewed revolutionary hopes. Aguinaldo returned and after capturing Spanish strongholds in Luzon proclaimed Phillipine independence on June 12, 1898. A few months later, the Philippine-American war broke out ; it ended in 1901 with the capture of Aguinaldo.

The Americans introduced new expertise in public administration, education and public health. But the agitation for independence through generally peaceful means continued. New leaders like Quezon, Osmeña, Roxas, Recto and Laurel emerged. In 1934, a new Constitution was drafted and in 1935 Manuel L. Quezon was elected First President of the Commonwealth.

The promised independence came on July 4, 1946, after four years of Japanese occupation during World War II ending almost four categories of foreign rules

This entry was posted on December 29, 2009.


The unprecedented increased demand for basic social services in the City of Manila is brought about merely by external factors exerting tremendous pressure on the overburdened city bureaucracy. It is a given fact that almost all urban areas experience identical social problems such as: where to house and provide for the basic needs of street children, the elderly, the disabled and other special groups that need special assistance; how to better equip school children through the provision of an efficiently managed and thorough implementation of educational services; how to improve the delivery of health services to benefit the majority of the populace needing special health care; and how to provide adequate security for the people.

It has been observed that these various social problems, while to be treated separately, are closely inter-related. For example, health problems intersect with die problems of ageing, the environment, poverty, drugs and alcohol. Poverty intersects with the problems of crime, population, and health. As we articulate these various social problems that have affected the quality of our lives, we must keep in mind that some people are particularly burdened with several social problems simultaneously. Therefore we must not lose sight of these individuals whose quality and standard of life is heavily reduced and affected by multiple social problems. They need more than understanding, they need help. In dealing with each particular problem, we must focus on ways of resolving it. It is of paramount importance to know not only what causes social problems but how to deal with them.

It is in this context that social development must work on. The upliftment of the disadvantaged sector of our society must be its primordial concern and to work for the alleviation of their condition. It shall be the policy of the local government to assist all sectors of society to the best of its ability and as far as resources are available. It shall pursue all available avenues to attain the objectives set People empowerment shall be pursued seriously in order to achieve an ideal society.

The Manila Department of Social Welfare as a creation of RA 4050 is the lead agency that takes care of the social welfare services of the City of Manila and is mandated to serve the economically disadvantaged or those who are unable’ to meet their basic necessities ‘of food, clothing and shelter and the socially disadvantaged or those whose life situation renders them unable to function normally as a member of his/her family and community due to incapacity to work by reason of disability and emotional and/or behavioral problems.

Manila has a vision to build a community free of social problems and ensure the availability of basic social welfare services particularly community-based programs to more qualified clients. The family is the focal point and partner in development such that every effort must be geared towards the upliftment of the status of this smallest unit of our society.

Objectives for Social Welfare:

1. Provision of basic social welfare services to all those who are in need.

2. Development of self-reliant and participating individuals, families and communities for them to harness their potentials and resources in solving their own problems.

3. To vigorously pursue the passage of laws that will benefit the disadvantaged sector of our society.

4. Strengthen networking with other government and non-government agencies.

5. Provision of housing facilities.

Strategies for Social Welfare:

1. People empowerment through appropriate trainings, workshops and other related undertakings aimed at upgrading their knowledge and skills to enable them to critically and objectively assess their individual and collective needs and to enable them to mobilize their resources and capabilities towards the resolution of their problems.

2. Establishment of continuing linkages and assistance for the strengthening and upgrading of capabilities of organized individuals or Non-government Organizations NGOs that would direct their personal and professional growth and development as well as offer guidance on the appropriate allocation of their resources vis-a-vis the needs of the underprivileged members of our society.

3. Organization, mobilization, and motivation of community volunteers who will primarily assist organized groups to take affirmative action to resolving the problems of the target clientele.

4. Introduction of basic approaches geared towards developing awareness on the importance and relevance of the family as a basic unit of society.

5. Promotion of home and community-based and managed programs and projects the focus of which is on wholesome child care, development to include psychosocial and mental stimulation practices

6. External financial support to meet the demands for services.

7. Research, evaluation and program development.

8. Convergence of services through inter-agency committees and core group undertakings.

The development of productive, self-reliant and a law abiding citizenry imbued with solid moral and spiritual values and committed to the ideals of democracy defines the goal of the Division of City Schools of Manila. The DCS is tasked with developing the full potential of the youth through quality pre-school, elementary and secondary education. It has for its mission the provision of quality and relevant education to attain improved quality of life for. a progressive city.

Objectives for Education:

1. Improve access to educational opportunities especially to low income groups, the disadvantaged and those with special needs.

2. Improve the quality and relevance of education both in academic and vocational training to meet the needs of the city.

3. Improve manpower development planning, implementation, monitoring and assessment to strengthen the system of educational management

4. Strengthen the moral fiber and deepen the spiritual values of school children to achieve a desirable social order.

5. Raise the quality of early childhood education and expand its implementation in the elementary school.

6. Enrich curriculum and other educational materials to include the latest concepts in environment, health and nutrition, population education, science and technology and mathematics.

7. Enhance capability in non-formal education delivery to increase literacy.

8. Strengthen linkages with allied services and agencies for a more efficient and effective delivery of services.

Strategies for Education:

1. Commitment and involvement to academic excellence in all levels, forms and types of public education.

2. Integration of demographic concerns population size, composition and distribution) in population-education programs to help in moderating population growth and in the rational distribution of the population.

3. Provision by the formal education institutions of learning opportunities which will complement and supplement in-service training efforts of private and public firms and ensure the productivity, adaptability and trainability of the workforce.

4. Coordination with the City Engineer’s Office and the Western Police District for the clearing of streets, repairs and renovations of school buildings and for the security and/or enforcement of city ordinances for the safety of the members of the academic community.

5. Conduct training programs geared towards the upgrading and enhancement of the teaching skills and competencies of teachers and school personnel in order to effectively respond to the learning needs of the students.

The Manila environment includes a wide range of condition and processes affecting the lives and development of the city dwellers. Hence, one of the evolving priorities for the city development plan is the improvement of the city’s health services.

Health problems affecting the city dwellers, particularly the poor, can be grouped into three categories related to their origin, (1) ECONOMIC, brought about by low income, low education, insufficient diet, over-crowding, unsanitary condition, etc., (2) MAN-MADE URBAN ENVIRONMENT brought about by pollution, traffic stress, alienation, etc., and (3) SOCIAL INSTABIUTY AND SECURITY, caused by alcohol and drug dependence, neglected streetchildren, etc. Unles5 preventive actions are implemented in parallel with increasing urbanization, the toll in terms of people suffering health problems will be enormous. Thus the Manila Health Department, the core health provided of the city and the lead agency that takes care of the health needs of our people aims to maximize all available resources in the delivery of health care in the city.

Objectives for Health:

1. Reduce crude birth rate per 1,000 population by 1%per year.

2. Reduce infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births by 1% per year.

3. Reduce maternal mortality rate per 1,000 live births by 1%per year.

4. Reduce crude death rate per 1,000 population by 10/a per year.

5. Increase the average life expectancy from 65 to 70 years

6. Decrease the proportion of malnourished children 7-10 years old who are moderately and severely underweight by 1%per year.

7. Increase the proportion of household with an adequate energy intake by 1.50/o per year.

8. Improve and maintain an effective environmental sanitation program.

Strategies for Health:

1. Develop and maintain social safety nets by implementing income-security and medicare protective measures.

2. Direct public resources and efforts to basic health services, disadvantaged sectors and specific groups of our society.

3. Encourage the use of traditional medicine and other indigenous resources and technology.

4. Promote balance between population, public resources and the environment to ensure sustainable development.

5. Provide the necessary infrastructure facilities to facilitate and improve the delivery of basic health services.

6. Strict implementation of the Generic Act of 1988.

7. Direct purchase of drugs, medicines and other medical supplies from manufacturers.\

A fast growing population with limited resources hamper the capability of the local government in acquiring the necessary facilities and equipment and personnel to confront a new breed of criminals and public offenders who had been emboldened over the years. While improved facilities contribute to effective police operations, the existence of a lasting peace and order is a shared responsibility of both the police personnel and the community.

A responsive police service requires continued sensitivity to changing community perception regarding law enforcement and constant adjustment in which services are performed and how they should be performed. This can be best achieved when police personnel are privy with residents’ attitudes and can respond on a neighborhood level simply because they live there.

The Western Police District has jurisdictional control over the maintenance of peace and order in the City of Manila. Although the city Chief Executive has administrative control over it, it is nonetheless directly under the Philippine National Police.

Objectives for Police Protection:

1. To ensure the security of all anytime of the day.

2. To respond to all eme~ency calls with dispatch.

3. To be the protector of all peace-loving citizens.

Strategies for Police Protection:

1. Encourage public participation in the drive against criminality

2. Acquisition of the latest technology used for crime prevention.

3. Re-orientation of the police force to keep them attuned with the public sentiments in regard to their performance.

4. Re-training of the police personnel.

The NCR Fire District or the Manila Fire District was formerly one of the Integral components of the Metropolitan Police Force. However, Congress enacted a law creating the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) which puts the National Fire Service in one separate bureau effective January 1, 1991, presently referred to as the Bureau of Fire Protection.

Objectives for Fire Protection:

1. To ensure the effectiveness of all fire-fighting units.

2. To respond to all emergency calls with dispatch.

3. To enhance the fire-fighting capabilities of all personnel.

Strategies for Police Protection:

1. Acquisition of the latest fire fighting equipment.

2. Re-training of fire fighters to familiarize themselves with the latest fire fighting equipment.

The phenomenon of emerging cities in the developing countries like the Philippines has shown significant attention m addressing the demands of the accelerating economic activity in the region. In NCR alone, many municipalities had been transformed into cities and such “cityhood” status is considerably a base material in propelling economic development programs. However, such developments have been affecting Manila’s robust economic structure and influence. For more than 20 years, Manila has been suffering from massive exodus of headquarters, manufacturing giants, amusement and commercial centers. The massive exodus had brought concern over its negative impact on the local job opportunities and the city coffers.

On the other hand, the advantages of Manila over the other cities and municipalities cannot be denied Manila’s role as the gateway to domestic trading have been already enhanced by the existence and the future development of the South and North Harbors. The seat of the national government is also located here in Manila. History and architectural landmarks inherited by the city has remained to be a vital factor for tourism and cultural activities. Furthermore, Manila is still the frontrunner in the development of the informal sector. Economists believe that through proper planning and motivation, the city government would be able to generate more income from this sector and at the same time reduce unemployment.

The central point of the economic development goal is to maximize the city’s inherited and built-in potentials alongside with its economic-related opportunities in both the formal and informal sectors, create a friendly business and investment environment and encourage private sector’s active participation in the governments development programs to ensure the city’s continuous economic growth.


Manila’s labor and employment scenario indicates a service oriented labor force. Service sector industry superbly dominates labor and employment , almost 8O~/o employed persons belong to this industry. Employed persons by Industry sector would be given much attention and support through local government policies to enhance and accelerate employability , and ensure its labor productivity and stability ,which in a way create a friendly, vibrant and productive industrial business atmosphere.

Objectives for Labor and Employment:

1. Provide greater employment opportunities for Manilans

2. Create a highly and ,globally competitive labor force.

3. Promote self-employed productivity development

Strategies for Labor and Employment:

1. Intensify convergence approach with the private sector and the different national government agencies to determine the demand for labor in the various industries operating in the city and to be able to come up with relevant labor and employment policies and support systems.

2. Encourage labor-intensive, non-hazardous industries by offering investment incentives and holidays.

3. Encourage the business sector to give priority to skilled workers from Manila. 4. Develop skills and employment development framework to facilitate the creation and implementation of industry-business-schools adoption program to ensure the employability of Manila residents and graduates.

5. Intensify inter-zonal skills training and development to promote sustainable economies of agglomeration.

6. Regulate and develop the service sector in the informal economy to maximize its labor and employment productivity for inclusion in the economic mainstream.

7. Enhance the proliferation of economies of agglomeration, especially the labor-intensive industry.

8. Intensify relevant entrepreneurship skills development program, including its support facilities.

9. Establish labor and employment monitoring and pooling system to achieve the sectoral objectives.

Manila as one of the ancient city in Asia has a built-in socio -econoimc potentials, its rich history, enticing educational facilities, active informal sector and front line harbors are tributaries to this stature as the center of trade and commerce. Trading as an economic mechanism is the dominant and central economic activity in the city and the country as whole. ~owever, in terms of financial sector, the city is suffering from massive exodus of banking headquarters for the last twenty years, which alarmed the ‘city officials to take a bold step to prevent and bring back these banking giants , this is inspite of the increasing number of banking operations in the City. Moreover, Industrial sector is given a ~cspecial treatment” in this document to complement with the city’s urban renewal program, along with the informal sector.

Objectives for Trade and Commerce:

1. Fully utilize the city’s built-in economic potentials to revitalize the existing business and commercial activities and come up with the best investment alternative programs for the sector.

2. Promote and encourage private sector’s participation as the city’s partner in its economic development program.

3. Maximize the informal sector’s contribution to the economy and facilitate its inclusion to the economic mainstream.

Strategies for Trade and Commerce:

1. Institutionalize the Manila Investment Board (MIB), coordinate efforts to promote trade and commerce and provide business opportunities profile/directory for investors.

2. Develop and maintain an efficient and quality public infrastructure, utilities and services to complement business activities and cater for their future expansion.

3. Prepare a Comprehensive, faster Development Plan for the urban renewal of the Central Business Districts of Malate, Ermita, Binondo and Escolta.

4. Develop and promote a diversified livelihood program suited for the city’s business climate.

5. Develop and promote the Special Economies of Agglomeration Zones (SUAZ) program.

6. Promote integrated convergence approach to develop, establish, maintain and operate selected local government owned facilities to ensure an efficient service for the city residents and to encourage the private sector’s participation in various city programs and projects.

7. Prepare a Development and Transition framework Plan for the informal sector to maximize its economic potentials and to accommodate them in the economic mainstream.

8. Revitalize the sector capability, services and its related support facilities to cease and /or discourage massive financial headquarters transfer from the city.

The deteriorating facilities, operations, services and financial condition of Manila public markets and abattoir held in abeyance its expansion through local government funds. Considerably, at present operations of the existing facilities continuously drain the city’s coffers, in spite of its income generating capability, a second look on its viability as local government facilities should be given an objective scrutiny, and recommendations to be able to adhere to the city’s programs and projects on public markets and abattoir services, without jeopardizing the same.

Objectives Public Markers & City Abattoir:

1. Maximize the city’s marketing capabilities and slaughterhouse operations including space planning, facility upgrading and development to ensure efficient, effective and diversified operations.

2. Promote and encourage alternative Financial sources to sustain and develop the existing facilities to be able to provide a more competitive, diversified and efficient operations.

3. Strengthen and improve the city’s financial position through cost-reduction measures without sacrificing its efficiency.

Strategies for Public Markets and City Abattoir:

1. Institnte Integrated Convergence Approach with various sectors to enhance its participation in the realization of the sectoral goals.

2. Conduct intensive sectoral projects’ screenings, prioritization and development studies to maximize the viability and productivity of sectoral operations and services.

3. Determine and utilize legally-binding financing schemes for project development purposes.

4. Formulate and adapt realistic cost-reduction measures and policies to further improve the cost-recovery performance of the facilities.

5. Enforce tight security and sanitary measures to ensure the efficient and effective delivery of the sector’s operations and services.

Manila’s physical development moves toward urban renewal, its policies, programs and projects are geared towards that goal to bring back the old glories of ~Ianila, and manufacturing is said to be the most affected sub-sector in the program. Local functionaries’ awareness in the importance of sustainable development compelled them to come up with environment-friendly policies, and programs that will achieve both ends to maintain and promote a vibrant manufacturing sector, and to protect the city’s natural and physical environment.

Objectives for Manufacturing:

1. Create and establish a more progressive and environment-friendly industrial climate to secure the rewards of sustainable development.

2. Promote industrial peace and total human development to gain a more balanced socio-economic development system.

Strategies for Manufacturing:

1. Encourage and promote small-medium scale labor-intensive and pollutants-free manufacturing industries.

2. Develop, formulate and adapt a more systematic financial assistance for small-scale industries.

3. Organize, mobilize and develop small-scale manufacturers to secure a more realistic financing scheme, systematic production operations and sold marketing strategies in their respective industries.

4. Formulate friendly-regulation policies for the informal sector to enable them to be protected and accommodated in the economic mainstream.

5. Establish a city sponsored priority manufacturing industries.

6. Formulate proposed industrial sites for inclusion in the zoning ordinance.

7. Empower peoples organizations, associations and sectoral groups to entice them to activity participate in shaping a more balanced ecological system amidst urban industrialization.

Manila possess the country’s rich history, its physical landmarks attest the city’s gorgeous beauty and prestige that manifest the peoples’ pain and glory a midst colonial captivity. It’s the birthplace and formation of prominent Filipino heroes and leaders. Manila’s strategic location, and it’s accessibility to international air and seaport contribute to the city’s alluring tourist haven stature. The prominence of its education, night life, recreation, sport facilities, national parks, five- star hotels, and seat of power are tributaries to the tourism activity in the city, aside from the famous sunset at Manila Bay. The distinctive features of Manila’s Special Designed Districts are now prioritize for restoration, and rehabilitation as a major component of Manila Tourism Development Program in cooperation with national government and the private sector. Moreover, parks and public recreations development are also given proper planning and programming for the local tourists.

Objectives for Tourism:

1. Promote economic, socio-cultural investment opportunities and environmental aspects of tourism activity in the city.

2. Relive and showcase the city’s colorful historic past, cultural heritage and old glory- as a major urban tourism destination of the country.

3. Promote urban renewal development program vis-a-vis environmental restoration/conservation towards a more enhanced quality of life and aggressive economic development programs.

Strategies for Tourism:

1. Formulate Convergence Approach Program to entice private sectors and private organizations associations to actively participate in identification, preparation, development and implementation of Tourism Development Framework for Central Manila.

2. Enact and adapt tourism-center and related policies to spearhead city–wide restoration and preservation of significant historical places and structures which project the city-‘s rich heritage and historic past.

3. Promote the development of tourism related support facilities and se~ces to cease and captive the outward migration of businesses to other areas m ~1etro Manila and entice them to bring back their economic activity in the city.

4. Develop a systematic collection, preservation and documentation of the city-‘s properties, materials of historical value and past Chief Executive belongings to ensure the captivity of its historical importance and contribution to the city.

Cooperative development is not as vibrant as trade and commerce, though its growth shows its bright future, only if given a proper planning and programming, and an objective advocacy. Multi-purpose cooperative dominates the movement, which only shows that Manilans are associating themselves with one stop” group or association that will respond to their variety of needs as an economic man. However, Cooperative movements for producers, manufacturers, consumers, and entrepreneurs are vital support systems to further spur trade and commerce activities in the city.

Objectives for Cooperatives:

1. Facilitate the development, empowerment and productivity of the economic sector and its entire sub-sectoral associations and organizations through cooperative development.

2. Encourage and develop producers-consumers joint entrepreneurship to achieve self-reliance, efficiency and mass-based productivity.

Strategies for Cooperatives:

1. Institutionalize cooperative development and sectoral integrated convergence strategies.

2. Assist, facilitate and encourage sub-sectoral investors, producers and consumers to organize into cooperative.

3. Formulate and develop an integrated Cooperative Development Plan to facilitate the realization of a develop, empower and productive cooperative movements in the city.

One of the more serious environmental problem that needs to be addressed is the pollution brought about by an inadequate solid waste management. The majority of the solid waste generated comes from residential or domestic sources and contains a high percentage of decomposing food wastes. Most of the solid waste generated by commercial and industrial establishments are collected by junk shop operators who end up recycling a large portion of the waste. The non-recyclable wastes end up in the city’s solid waste collection and disposal system. Uncollected garbage is left on the streets.

Objectives for Solid Waste Management:

1. Ensure the regular collection of solid waste and that proper collection and disposal system is observed.

2. Maintain an effective and efficient collection and disposal system.

3. Ensure an effective information dissemination program.

Strategies for Solid Waste Management:

1. Enactment of ordinances that shall cover segregation of waste at source and tax rebates for industries using environmental friendly materials

2. Designation of waste redemption and processing centers.

3. Encourage re-cycling among the city residents.

4. Closely coordinate with the different national agencies and NGOs concerned with waste management.

The City of Manila is one of the highly developed urban areas in the country. It has about 364 kilometers of esteros. Unlike today, these esteros were navigable before and were used as a means to transport products and people to nearby provinces. Most if not all of these esteros are non-navigable today. Moreover, about 9 percent of the city esteros are missing. Their disappearance may be attributed to natural dumping up because of continuous dumping of garbage and lack of proper maintenance. Other causes are man-made in which esteros are filled up for construction purposes. The squatters have also contributed to the present condition of the Pasig River and other waterays. Squatters encroached on the esteros thus, impeding the free flow of water resulting in the flooding of low-lying areas.

Objectives Waterways & Esteros:

1. Rehabilitate and preserve all existing waterways.

2. Prevent and control pollution of all waterways.

3. Recover all missing esteros.

4. Transform easement of applicable existing waterways into linear parks.

Strategies for Waterways and Esteros:

1. Dredging of all waterways and esteros

2. Recover all missing esteros and tributaries

3. Strict monitoring of illegal dumping of waste in esteros

4. Tax incentive to industries using anti-pollution devices

5. Strictly enforce the anti-squatting law

The improvement of the city’s sewerage system which has long been inadequate calls for the modernization and construction of interceptors, treatment vortex stations, plants, and outfall sewers to Manila Bay. At present, sewerage is collected by laterals and interceptors of 15 centimeter to 150 centimeter diameter pipes from the outmoded ‘1~ondo main sewerage pumping station passing thru seven minor sewerage pumping stations. Sta. Ana, a sub-district of the city, has a separate system and part of its effluents are discharged directly to the Pasig river, thus contributing to its degradation.

Objectives for Sewerage & Sanitation System:

1. To improve and expand sewerage facilities in the service areas of the City of Manila.

2. To rebuild and improve the existing Central Manila Sewerage System.

3. To expand the sewer system to the north and south with disposal initially by outfall sources to the Manila Bay.

4. To provide immediate sanitation facilities in densely populated communities.

Strategies for Sewerage and Sanitation System:

1. Rehabilitate and improve the existing Central Sewerage System and implement an effective maintenance program.

2. Conduct an extensive repair operation of all sewer pipes and trunk sewers.

3. Expand the coverage of all sewer lines.

This entry was posted on February 16, 2009.